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Performance Chemicals

Codex Phosphonate can be used as antiscalants, dispersants and chelants in cooling water treatment, boiler water treatment applications and as anti scalants in waste water treatment applications.

Phosphonate is much more accepted than other chelating agents for the following benefits:
  • Threshold effect
  • Dispersion
  • Sequestration
  • Excellent hydrolytic stability
  • Chlorine stability
In water treatment, it find application in following:
  • Boiler water treatment
  • Cooling water treatment
  • Flash desalination
  • Reverse osmosis
  • Secondary oil recovery
  • Swimming pools
Water Treatment (1)

Water Treatment

Cooling Performance Chemicals:

Codex phosphonates is a key ingredient of cooling tower treatment formulations. Codex phosphonates are cost-effective components of the treatment package for several reasons:
  1. Codex phosphonates- are extremely effective threshold scale inhibitors. They can be used alone or in combination at very low levels to control the calcium, magnesium, carbonates and sulphates, which are concentrated in the cooling tower through evaporation.
  2. Codex phosphonates- are good corrosion inhibitors, especially in combination with other inhibitors.
  3. Codex phosphonates- are very effective dispersants & helping to prevent fouling.
Product offering:

Boiler Performance Chemicals :

The generation of steam in boiler systems poses a severe challenge for water quality, often necessitating advanced water treatment and maintenance techniques. At the high temperatures prevalent in boilers, the buildup of scale deposits becomes a significant issue, leading to tube overheating and potential failure. Codex phosphonates find application in boiler systems in two ways:

Codex phosphonates are incorporated into a phosphate program to modify or “condition” the calcium phosphate sludge that forms, making it less adherent and keeping it dispersed. Phosphate programs are based on the formation of calcium phosphate rather than hard, sticky calcium carbonate.

Codex phosphonates are also utilized in chelating or solubilizing programs, which are typically based on EDTA or NTA, to act as a supplementary calcium carbonate scale inhibitor. The use of Codex allows for a reduction in the amount of chelant required, thereby lowering the corrosivity of these programs.

Reverse Osmosis

Reverse osmosis (RO) can be considered as a highly advanced form of molecular-level filtration process. In an RO system, pressure is exerted across a membrane to propel water from the “contaminated” side towards the “clean” side, resulting in the production of highly purified water.

However, as one can envision, the accumulation of salt concentration occurs on the side of the membrane where pressure is applied, causing a decline in membrane efficiency. To address this issue, Codex phosphonates can be utilized to prevent the formation of scale on the high-pressure side of the membrane, providing numerous benefits.

Therefore, it is recommended to use Codex phosphonates to ensure optimal efficiency and longevity of RO systems.

Secondary Oil Recovery

Oil is typically found in reservoirs located at varying depths beneath the sea floor (offshore) and underground (onshore). To extract oil from a well, it must be removed from the pores in the formation rock. Initially, this is achieved through the natural pressure in a newly drilled well. In a mature well where the formation pressure has decreased, various methods can be employed to maintain the formation pressure. For offshore wells, seawater is injected downhole. Formation water, which is present in the reservoir, is often high in certain ions that tend to form scale when mixed with seawater or when subjected to changes in thermodynamic conditions. A similar phenomenon occurs in onshore wells.

To prevent mineral deposits such as calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, barium sulfate, and strontium sulfate from forming in the near-wellbore area and production tubing, scale inhibition chemicals, such as Codex Phosphonates, are highly beneficial. Codex phosphonates have demonstrated their effectiveness in both topside and downhole applications by effectively controlling scale. Specifically, several of these products have proven to be effective in protecting the well against scale formation in squeeze applications.

In summary, the use of Codex phosphonates as a scale inhibition chemical can significantly enhance the efficiency and lifespan of offshore and onshore wells, ultimately leading to increased production and profitability.

Swimming Pool Water

In swimming pools, phosphonate is applied to inhibit the formation of Metal salts like calcium & magnesium salts.

Product Use

Laundry and Detergents


The Codex Phosphonates used in both consumer and institutional laundry detergents applications. In consumer laundry products, Codex phosphonates are used for special functions such as stain removal, bleach stabilization and anti-encrustation. They have become particularly valuable in non-phosphate laundry products where high carbonate levels otherwise lead to encrustation problems.

Codex phosphonates should also be considered for addition to I&I laundry detergents. Sizable performance boosts in relatively simple liquid laundry detergents can be obtained through the use of relatively low levels of Codex phosphonates.

One way of controlling calcium carbonate scaling is through the use of a scale inhibitor, such as Codex. The phosphonates may also be useful against some other commonly encountered scales, such as strontium salts and silica.

Dishwashing Detergent

Laundry Detergent

  • Bar Soap Stabilization:The Codex phosphonate are useful for preventation of Discolourartion & rancidity in bar soap because of its excellent complexing ability with various metals ions. It is also useful for improving the performance in hardwater also.

Oilfield and Mining


EIL provides specialty chemicals and solutions for Ore beneficiation processes, Hydrometallurgical applications, Precious metals recovery applications.

Phosphonates in Hydrometallurgy

In hydrometallurgy, mineral concentrates are separated into usable oxides and metals through liquid processes, including leaching, extraction, and precipitation. By these means, the elements are dissolved and purified into leach solutions. Each individual phosphonate has unique characteristics and special capabilities for specific applications – thus each giving the most cost-efficient performance for different specific applications.

Application of Phosphonates is in ore beneficiation in both Leaching and precipitation.

Leaching: Phosphonates plays important role in selective complex formation by forming of soluble complex with impurity for selective and effective separation.

Precipitation: Phosphonates is used in formation of insoluble form which is separated by filtration.

Phosphonate properties:

  • Threshold inhibition
  • Chelation: Ability to form stable complexes with various metal ion
  • Ability to remains stable at various temperature & pH

Products offered by Excel:

ProductsCAS No.StructureApplication
Phosphorus Pentasulphide (P2S1314-80-3Froth Floatation Agent
Styrene Phosphonic Acid (SPA)1707-08-0Collector for Tin Ore Mining
O,O-Diethyldithiophosphoric Acid (EDTA)298-06-6Precious metals recovery from Zn, Cu Ore
Sodium Salt of O,O Diethylthiophosphoric Acid53378-51-1Floatation Agent
Sodium Salt of O,O Diisobutylthiophosphoric Acid3338-24-7Floatation agent for copper, lead and zinc
Phosphonate -Codex (HEDP, ATMP, DETMPA)2809-21-4
Removal of metal ion impurities

Mineral Washing Process:

Codex phosphonates can be used for process water treatment in the mining industries.

Codex phosphonates can be used in several metal cleaning applications. In formulation, they are valuable for their effectiveness in removing rust and other oxides from steel surfaces; they are also very efficient in removing calcium carbonate/metal oxide mixtures from steel. An added benefit in Codex-based oxide removal systems is the simultaneous metal passivation that occurs. Codex phosphonates are well suited to cleaner applications because of their ability to work at a wide range of temperatures and pH levels and because of their hydrolytic stability.

Phosphonates Based

ProductChemical NameAbbreviation
Codex 6611-Hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid HEDP
Codex 4473Disodium salt of diethylene triamine pentamethylene phosphonic acidDTPMPA.2NA
Codex 4473NDisodium salt of diethylene triamine pentamethylene phosphonic acidDTPMPA.2NA
Codex 4503Diethylenetriaminepenta (methylene phosphonic acid)DTPMPA
Codex 5323Diethylenetriaminepenta (methylene phosphonic acid).heptasodium saltDTPMPA.7NA
Codex 5323HHepta sodium salt of diethylene triamine penta methylene phosphonic acidDTPMPA.7NA
Codex 5512-Phosphonobutane-1,2,4,-tricarboxylic AcidPBTC
Codex 71011-hydroxyethylidene 1, 1- diphosphonic acid.tetrasodium saltHEDP.4NA
Codex 71121-Hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, Tetrasodium saltHEDP.4NA
Codex 8503Aminotri (methylene phosphonic acid)ATMP
Codex DS1- hydroxyethylidene 1, 1-disphosphonic acid.Disodium salt; Etidronic acid.Disodium saltHEDP.2NA
Codex 9403Amino Trimethylene Phosphonic Acid, Pentasodium saltATMP.5NA
SPAStyrene Phosphonic Acid SPA
PEEBp-ethoxy ethyl benzoatePEEB
THPE1,1,1,tris (4-hydroxyphenyl) ethaneTHPE
DMBPC1,1,bis(4-hydroxy-3-methyl phenyl) cyclohexaneDMBPC


Textile Processing

Control of metal ions is critical in several textile processing stages. Codex Phosphonates, with their excellent ability to control both hardness and heavy metal ions, should be considered in any process where metal ions interfere.

There are two critical processes where the use of phosphonate is essential: textile scouring and peroxide bleaching of textiles.

The Scouring Process :

The scouring process uses hot alkaline solutions to remove natural and other impurities from textile fabrics. If impurities are not removed, they will negatively affect subsequent bleaching, dyeing, printing or finishing operations.

Codex Phosphonates are used in scouring to remove iron and water hardness ions; this results in better fabric whiteness, prevention of staining due to iron deposits and prevention of fabric damage during bleaching caused by embedded copper or iron fragments.

  • Control of Calcium in Caustic Scouring
Textiles (1)

The Bleaching Process :

  • Hydrogen peroxide, commonly used to bleach textiles, is easily decomposed in the presence of very low levels of heavy metals. Loss of peroxide and bleaching efficiency thus results, and in textile applications, the presence of metal particles on the fabric can cause pinholes due to the excessive rate of local decomposition of the peroxide. Very low levels of Codex Phosphonates can sequester the metal ions & prevents this decomposition.
  • Also, since silicates are sometimes used in bleaching to stabilize the peroxide and buffer the solutions, the addition of phosphonates helps to prevent the scale build-up so common in silicate systems.
  • Stabilization of Peroxide Bath
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Household, Industrial & Institutional Cleaning Products

Industrial & Institutional Cleaners

Industrial & Institutional cleaning products are formulated to meet the needs of a large and diverse market; segments include janitorial, health care, food processing, food service, textile maintenance and vehicle cleaning. The multi-functional Codex phosphonates have several properties which improves the performance of cleaning formulation:

  1. They are excellent chelants and can be used to control hardness ions, such as calcium, magnesium and iron.
  2. They are very effective scale inhibitors at very low levels, reducing scale buildup caused by calcium carbonate.
  3. They act as dispersants and so keep soils suspended.

Dairy Cleaners :

Codex phosphonates perform exceptionally well in cleaning products for the dairy industry. They are well-suited for use in dairy formulations because of their ability to work at virtually any temperature and pH level and because of their resistance to chemical degradation. They are used to:

  1. Prevent calcium scale buildup by threshold inhibition.
  2. Improve washing effectiveness by chelation and dispersion.
  3. Inhibit spotting and staining of metal surfaces (chelation and scale inhibition)

Vehicle Wash :

The multi-functionality of the Codex phosphonates make them well suited to formulation in vehicle wash products. Threshold activity against hardness metal ions (calcium and magnesium) guard against the formation of hard water scum.

  1. Sequestration of heavy metals aids overall detergency and cleaning ability.
  2. Dispersancy prevents redeposition of soils on vehicle surfaces.
  3. Corrosion inhibition not only offers protection of aluminium alloys, but may also aid in brightening of aluminium.

Codex phosphonates have a high solubility in liquids, making them a preferred component in many newer liquid vehicle wash products.

Bottle Washing :

A good bottle washing formulation has to remove all types of soils, keep them dispersed, sequester metals to prevent scale formation, aid in label removal and promote good rinsing.

Codex phosphonateshave the following functions:

  1. Codex phosphonates provide metal ion control by sequestration in the washing stage. Prevention of clogged pipes and heat exchangers is achieved.
  2. Codex phosphonates contribute to better washing because of dispersion and maintenance of soils in suspension.
  3. Codex phosphonates inhibit spotting and hazy appearance of bottles by preventing soil and some chemical additives form depositions on bottles and the equipment.
  4. Codex phosphonates prevent the scale build-up in the rinse sections of production washers. Their threshold scale inhibition is at work here.

Other Applications

Cosmetics & Personal Care Product:

A vital function of Phosphonate in cosmetic industry is the ability to control metal ions. In cosmetics and personal care products, minute levels of iron can stimulate rancidity in the fatty acids used in these items. CODEX chelation properties control undesirable metal ion such as iron, subsequently averting rancidification. Codex 7101 & Codex 8503 are very effective in preventing rancidification in cosmetic & personal care products. Optimum level is 0.05 % active. Codex 7101 is the conventional Phosphonate used as a stabilizer in commercial personal care products. Etidronate or Etidronic acid are its CTFA (Cosmetics, Toiletries, Fragrance Association) name.


Electroplating is the deposition of a thin metallic layer on a surface by passing an electric current through a solution in which the object has been immersed. The solution, or plating bath, contains dissolved salts of the metal or metals being deposited. A major portion of plating baths include cyanide as the sequestrant which holds the metal in solution. Cyanide works very well, but the highly toxic cyanide solutions must be carefully maintained at a basic pH to avoid evolution of hydrogen cyanide. Moreover disposal costs of the environmentally unacceptable cyanide are also rapidly escalating. Codex phosphonates can be used in eg Copper plating baths, in place of cyanide, to hold the desired metals in solution and to chelate trace metal impurities.


Control of heavy metals is critical in the process of silicon wafer cleaning and electroplating. Specifically designed Codex Phophonates do have the required purity and heavy metal chelation properties to be used in electronics applications.

Alkaline hydrogen peroxide based cleaning solutions are used for the cleaning of silicon wafers in semiconductor manufacturing. Although these cleaning mixtures have excellent particle removal capabilities they are very often not optimized for metallic contamination. It is known that metallic contamination when present in the bath will decrease the bath lifetime due to the metal catalyzed decomposition of peroxide. Moreover subsequent acid cleaning steps are required to remove residual metals from the wafer. Codex Phosphonates are used to stabilize peroxide cleaning solutions and to reduce heavy metal contamination of silicon wafers.

Construction Materials

The Codex Phosphonates are extremely effective in retarding the hardening of the cement. The Codex Phosphonates extend the cement setting time to allow for:

  1. Placing cement in very hot environments such as oil wells and geothermal wells.
  2. Reclaiming unused cement from construction sites at the end of the day (setting is delayed overnight by the addition of Codex phosphonates).
  3. Premixing of large amounts of cement for construction in hot and dry climatic conditions, and
  4. Pumping cement over long distances.


The Codex Phosphonates are extremely effective dispersants. They can be used as plasticizers for clay slurries used in ceramic processes resulting in reduced drying energy costs. Moreover Codex products can be used to control scale depositions in the ceramics factory pipe systems.

Paints, Coatings and Slurries

The Codex Phosphonates, are extremely effective dispersants. They can be used to reduce the viscosity of coatings and slurries and as dispersants for water based paints. Moreover Codex phosphonates have the required heavy metal chelation properties which allow for the control of heavy metals in case they would interfere with the stability of the paint.

Pulp & Paper Processing

Hydrogen peroxide is rapidly replacing chlorine as the bleaching agent of choice for increasing brightness of paper pulp. In the absence of a stabilizer, a significant portion of peroxide is wasted as a result of decomposition, catalyzed by heavy metals present both in the wood pulp and in the process equipment. Codex Phosphonates effectively sequester transition metal ions such as iron, copper and manganese, allowing the peroxide to do its work as a brightening agent. Codex Phosphonate can also be used as a pretreatment chemical for wood pulp for extraction of transition metals prior to actual bleaching.

Phosphonates also offer scale inhibition in the bleaching bath, a function not provided by more typically used stabilizers, such as sodium silicate and DTPA.

Metal Finishing :

Codex Phosphonates should be considered for a variety of metal finishing applications. Potential functions of Codex include:

  1. Use as an agent for the protection of metal surfaces. Codex Phosphonate can be used to provide corrosion protection for steel and aluminium in a variety of applications.
  2. Addition to metal plating baths to complex trace metal impurities or to act as the primary electrolyte
  3. Addition to aluminium etching baths to inhibit the formation of aluminium oxide / hydroxide precipitates and to keep formed precipitates suspended in solution.

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